By Legal Bureau
REDEVELOPMENT OF OLD BUILDINGS
Shelter is a basic human need, which has become a major challenge in a country, which is fast urbanizing. Maharashtra is one of the most urbanized states in the country. Whereas nationally 27% of the population was in the urban areas, in Maharashtra, the figure was 42% (Census 2001). Housing in urban areas assumes much greater significance, as it relates not only to basic shelter needs but also provides a facility to the citizens to access services and be part of the development process. Housing implies not only construction of bricks and mortar; it includes the supporting infrastructure, access to transport and employment opportunities.
Redevelopment refers to the process of reconstruction of the residential/commercial premises by demolition of the existing structure and construction of a new structure. This is done by utilizing the potential of the land by exploiting additional TDR, FSI as specified under the Development Control Regulations of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM).
Types of Redevelopment
Redevelopment of old dilapidated building
Redevelopment of Old Mhada Colony
Why Redevelopment is required
For Existing Owners
Though they are in dire need of extensive repairs, societies are starved of necessary funds required to carry them out. On the one hand, they do not have the resources and expertise to handle the repairs on their own and on the other, the families of the members have expanded and they need larger space to accommodate themselves.
Drawbacks of old buildings:
Lack of services such as security, cleaning, and to operate pumps.
Absence of common facilities like gymnasium and a society office.
Unavailability of proper playing area for children in the compound.
· Perennial leakage in the structure and also in the overhead or ground floor water tanks.
· Unavailability of elevators causing suffering to heart patients and the elderly.
· Absence of a proper entrance lobby.
· Room sizes being too small.
· Interior planning of rooms being unsatisfactory.
· Lack of attached toilets in bedrooms.
· Plumbing/electrical lines lying open
· Size of toilets being too small
· Low resale value due to poor condition of the building
Builders/Developers opting for purchasing land and developing the same, incur huge stamp duty cost on transfer of land. Instead redevelopment of old building reduces stamp duty to a significant extent. For this they enter into development Agreement with Society. Entering into such development agreement does not vest any title of the land in the favor of developer, but merely authorizes the developer to develop the land.
The builder approaches the owner of the land and, instead of buying the land and paying a large amount towards the purchase; he enters into an agreement with the owner for permission to develop the land on the owner’s behalf. In other words, in a case of development, the builder constructs the buildings at his cost, retains some flats for himself to be sold in the open market, gives a few flats to the landowner and also pays him some monetary consideration. The developer carries out this development work in the capacity of a constituted attorney of the owner and not on his own behalf.
Later, these flats are sold by the developer in the open market and from such sale, he makes a profit. The rate of stamp duty in respect of development agreement being much less than that payable on outright purchase, there’s a significant saving in stamp duty cost. Later, when the building is actually conveyed to a co-operative society or a company, the landowner and builder become party to the conveyance deed on which the stamp duty is payable and the same is also registered.
Procedure for redevelopment of an immovable property.
The consent of the society members must be obtained during society meetings. On or before the execution of the agreement, the society should hand over to the developers, the copy of the conveyance deed in respect of the society’s property, along with certified copies of the property register card, index II, latest electricity bill, water bill, municipal tax bill, N.A. tax bill in respect of the society’s property and also, the copy of the registration certificate of society under the Maharashtra Cooperative Societies Act, 1960.
The list of members with their choice of new flats and parking, area entitlement among others as agreed upon in the new building should be prepared. The terms about the provision of temporary alternate accommodation to the members during the construction period should also be made clear in the agreement.
Inability to assemble all members of the society at a single point of time, as some of the members may not be available. Some flats may be mortgaged to a bank or a financial institution
Some of the members may be interested in purchase of new flats at a discounted rate in the new building.
The title may not be clear, i.e. conveyance deed of the land and structure is not executed in favor of the society.
Anxiety in the minds of the members about possible delay in completion of the project after they have vacated their old flats.
The old documents of the members may not be traceable
Lack of unity amongst the members
The tax issues regarding redevelopment are not clear to the society.
Very high prices are expected on sale of old flats in the case of certain members who are not interested in staying in the new building.
Corpus amount takes a long time to be fixed by the society.
The decision as to which member will get what type of parking takes a very long time.
The redevelopment under DCR 33(7) and 33(9) will continue, it is proposed to introduce the cluster or precinct development approach and to incentivise the same.
The Cluster Redevelopment Approach has successfully transformed the cities of Hong Kong, Singapore and Shanghai. It is proposed to adopt a similar approach for Urban Renewal in Maharashtra State. For the redevelopment of old buildings, it is proposed to undertake cluster development as strategy for expediting and to bring about planned development. In order to promote cluster redevelopment, it is proposed to give higher FSI to large cluster redevelopment. The main objectives of the cluster approach will be as follows :-
a) To transform the fractured development in to cohesive urban unit as laid down in Development Plan.
b) To provide modern accommodation and social services which raise living standards and reduce disparities amongst different sections of population.
c) To provide an environment which permits the residents of such areas to live fuller and richer lives free of physical and social stress that are generally associated with haphazard urban development.
d) To facilitate development and proper maintenance of infrastructure facilities such as sewerage / storm water drainage /DP Roads which cannot be developed because of the present haphazard Development
e) To generate maximum number of surplus tenements for rehabilitation of the occupiers who are on Master List of MHADA. The fact that MHADA will play the nodal role in the cluster approach and shall be a signatory to all the agreements will provide greater acceptability and credibility amongst the tenants and landlords.
JOINT VENTURE FOR REDEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
Till date, the Repairs & Reconstruction Board of MHADA has been able to undertake redevelopment of old and dilapidated buildings under DCR 33(9) Few Other old and dilapidated buildings have been reconstructed through private developers under DCR 33(7). In order to accelerate the redevelopment of old and dilapidated buildings, it is proposed to encourage redevelopment projects through joint ventures in which MHADA along with the tenants, landlords and private developers, if necessary, will come together for undertaking redevelopment of Cluster. Detailed guidelines for this scheme shall be issued by the Urban Development Department separately.
ADOPTION OF EARLIER REPORTS
The problem of Urban Renewal and of old and dilapidated buildings and the need to bring together tenants and landlords is a concern not only for Mumbai and its suburban areas but, also for other cities of Maharashtra State. This problem has been studied in detail and recommendations of Sukhthankar Committee and Afzulpurkar Committee have been accepted by
Government. It is now proposed to extend the applicability of these two reports to all Municipal Areas of Maharashtra. The concerned Municipal Corporation or Council will adopt and
implement the principles enunciated in these reports with suitable local modifications. This will be monitored by the Urban Development Department.
There are constraints on the availability of open land within the city limits coupled with fast growing demand for houses and shortage of housing stock. On the other hand that there are thousands of ageing buildings which are dilapidated and have reached a stage where it is not possible to carry out structural repairs and rehabilitation as the same are not economically viable. The redevelopment of old building has become a necessity since the problem of old and dilapidated buildings in the city of Mumbai grows more acute with each passing year and with each passing monsoon more and more building becomes dangerous and unfit for habitation. Many of these buildings are so run down that they are unrepairable and the only solution is to put them down totally and to reconstruct them.
Scheme which involves adequate and due compensation to the landlord and the tenants/members and to the developer duly is an ideal Redevelopment scheme. This needs faster procedural clearance from Government.